Now at the RB sortoispytatelny stations work on selection of new grades of grain of triticale, such as the Oak grove, Idea, the Module, it, the Chest, the Beacon, Run, Uladar, Amber, Falko (ozima and other/7/is carried out
In many lines of triticale wrinkling of grain is the resistant and serious lack of quality leading to low nature of grain, bad appearance and unsatisfactory flour-grinding kachestvam./2/
Mature starched grains of triticale contain as furrowed large, linzoobrazny granules, and spherical grains. One of the pressing problems which arose at removal of grades of triticale - wrinkling of seeds at approach of a maturity. High activity of amylase leads to starch destruction endosperm and an arrest of development of cages. Possibly it is related to the wrinkling of a zernovka accompanying development of triticale.
Allopoliploidiya - a poliploidiya on the basis of association and multiplication of two or several whole genomes belonging to different types or childbirth. A genome - a haploid set of chromosomes with the genes localized in it; in a broader sense understand as a genome also set of the hereditary elements localized in a kernel.
The external integument consists of three layers of cages from which by the time of maturing only one remains. About three days later after blossoming in this layer the functioning hloroplasta are formed, and in its cages it is possible to see starched grains. Directly under an external integument two layers of cages of an internal integument are located. Between the sixth and eighth day after blossoming they are usually broken off to the increasing endosperms, and the flattened remains of cages form as it is already described, a seed cover. Cell fission developing endosperm stops approximately in 12-14 days after blossoming. The subsequent its development happens by increase in the sizes of cages and accumulation of starch grains in them and spare protein.
Scientists picked up the best conditions of cultivation for triticale. In Hungary generally grow up triticale on a green forage to cattle and on grain for numerous trial pastries which showed good results, but yet standards for bread from triticale still are not developed. In Japan triticale is received by crossing of soft wheat and a rye, and also such crossings, as (a wheaten polba x a rye) x soft wheat, (x Haynaldia wheat) x a rye and (wheat x a rye) x were carried out (x Haynaldia wheat). Work on improvement of grades to triticale and increase in adaptability of this culture to various conditions of the environment proceeds. Now there is a wide choice parental materiala./1/
Like other grain cereals, at triticale grain develops from the semyapochka containing the only maternal cage megadisputes. When blossoming it contains a germinal bag in which are an ovum, two degenerating sinegirda, two kernels and some antipode merged polar.
Triticale - the first grain culture created by the person which is received when crossing wheat (Triticum) with a rye (Secale). Creation of triticale (wheat and rye a hybrid - a new type of the grain crops possessing a number of outstanding qualities and representing a new botanical sort. By association of chromosomal complexes of two different botanical childbirth - wheat and a rye, the person managed to synthesize for the first time for history of agriculture a new crop which according to experts, in the near future will become one of the leading grain crops, and also it will be cultivated on a green forage. Triticale - a wheat and rye hybrid, belongs to amfiploida like allopoliploid. Apply as well other term - in that case when the genomic structure of parental types is unknown or types are diploids. When receiving wheat and rye hybrids the genomic composition of wheat and a rye is well-known, therefore for designation of such hybrids more correct term ""./1/
For the third or fourth day after blossoming pericarp fabric rich with starch starts collapsing. It is followed by sharp strengthening of activity of amylase and destruction of fine spherical starched grains, characteristic for pericarp cages.